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how does the immune system respond to pathogens

A 39-year-old member asked:
Dr. Nayla Mumneh
28 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Immunity: there are several types of immune responses to pathogens involving T and B cells and other mechanisms involved in memory of the immune system that hel ... Read More
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A 56-year-old member asked:
Dr. Brant Ward
12 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Few dif. things: Antibodies are proteins made by certain immune cells that seek out and bind to pathogens. Once bound, antibodies can activate other proteins in your b ... Read More
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A 56-year-old member asked:
Dr. Ed Friedlander
43 years experience Pathology
Antibodies: And sometimes angry t-cells. Complement molecules to punch holes. This is a big subject.
A 37-year-old member asked:
Dr. John Chiu
Dr. John Chiu answered
56 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Constant: Bacteria , viruses, and we are all constantly evolving to adapt to the environment likely through epigenetic actions on the genes. Thus HIV virus is n ... Read More
A 49-year-old member asked:
Dr. Ryan Phasouk
17 years experience Family Medicine
Remarkably: In an immunocompetent individual, the immune system in general is adequate enough to overcome bronchitis. It may need little more than a week or two ... Read More
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A 44-year-old member asked:
Dr. Bernstein Joel
59 years experience ENT and Head and Neck Surgery
Good question: Viral otitis media should resolve in 10 to fourteen days. At age 36, it is most likely that the symptoms of ear ache, ear fullness and pressure are t ... Read More
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A 45-year-old member asked:
Dr. Nayla Mumneh
28 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Complex question: You can spend 4 years learning about its basics and it takes lifetimes to continue studying it..
A 55-year-old member asked:
Dr. Vasu Brown
33 years experience Integrative Medicine
Lymph nodes: Latin lympha "water goddess" - lymph is essentially recycled blood plasma. The lymphatic system returns the interstitial fluid to the thoracic duct an ... Read More
A 52-year-old member asked:
Dr. Dareen Siri faaaai facaai fisaai
20 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Bronchitis: As with any infection, it may take a couple of weeks to fight a novel pathogen, or more quickly if it is from one that has attacked before. Bacterial ... Read More
A member asked:
Dr. Carol Jacobs
Specializes in Pediatrics
Two stages: Natural Killer cells are the first immune step that seeks out the malaria to mark it for the body to "kill" it. A second step is the T cell that also ... Read More
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A 46-year-old member asked:
Dr. Jeffrey Rosch
48 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Infections good/bad: Can be good or bad. Germs (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc) stimulate one or more response(s) by immune system to isolate and destroy the "attacker" ... Read More
A 39-year-old member asked:
Dr. Jack Mutnick
16 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Immune system: It is a multi-pronged attack too big to describe here.....So follow this link. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/immunesystem/pages/default.aspx.
A 47-year-old member asked:
Dr. Mark Sacher
32 years experience Pain Management
Antibodies: In type one diabetes, our own body's antibodies go haywire and attack the islts of langerhans of the pancreas. Islet of langerhans cells produce insul ... Read More
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A 50-year-old member asked:
Dr. Gurmukh Singh
48 years experience Pathology
Complicated: Natural killer cells can recognize tumor cells and virally infected cells and destroy those. T-cells and antibodies to markers on tumor cells may als ... Read More
A 37-year-old member asked:
Dr. Paul Carter
29 years experience Allergy and Immunology
No: Acetaminophen / paracetamol should have no effect on immunity.
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A 51-year-old member asked:
Dr. Brant Ward
12 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Filter of sorts: The fluid that bathes the tissues of the body gets collected by the lymphatic system like a drain (it eventually goes back into the blood circulation) ... Read More
A 42-year-old member asked:
Dr. Mina Sehhat
Specializes in Pediatrics
White blood celles: With producing antibody and fighting of special kind of blood white cells against viruses.
A 55-year-old member asked:
Dr. Stevan Cordas
56 years experience Internal Medicine
Heard to simplify.: Like a complicated orchestra plays a difficult score. Different germs produce different responses. There are is nonspecific and specific immune respon ... Read More
A 49-year-old member asked:
Dr. John Chiu
Dr. John Chiu answered
56 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Yes: Our immune system is constantly fighting off invaders . If you already have the antibodies in the system for that particular organism, you will likely ... Read More
A 29-year-old male asked:
Dr. Sarah Kohl
34 years experience Travel Medicine
Intriguing: We don't know how or why infection with nematodes minimizes the chance of developing autoimune diseases such as crohn's or ulcerative colitis. Prelimi ... Read More
A 52-year-old member asked:
Dr. Jack Mutnick
16 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Immunity: It protects us and can also be a major player in the inflammatory pathway or autoimmune disease.
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A 54-year-old member asked:
Dr. Lee Perry
Dr. Lee Perry answered
16 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Complicated: Antibodies basically surround infectious organisms (usually bacteria) and help either neutralize them or lead to their destruction.
A 56-year-old member asked:
Dr. Thomas Josa
38 years experience Allergy and Immunology
Broad question: The immune system tailors it's response to various viruses and to various bacteria in several different ways that can be quite complex depending on ho ... Read More
A 40-year-old member asked:
Dr. Victor Nwanguma
19 years experience Infectious Disease
Differently: In general, antibiotics have no effect on viruses, (it is important not to use antibiotics to treat infections cause by viruses) most bacteria will ... Read More
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