Can bruxism cause teeeth or jaw problems?

Yes. Yes bruxism can cause teeth and jaw problems. Bruxing puts strong forces on both. Teeth can fracture, become sensative, break, or become loose. The jaw can have a problem in the joint. You need to see a dentist to find out what to do.
Yes. Yes, many people brux without sequelae. Depends on degree. You can damage teeth/restorations, damage jaw joint (TMJ) and associated structures. Best advice would be to see your dentist for assessment and possible treatment of bruxism.
Structural damage. Sleep bruxism is a parafunctional activity that occurs in nearly all people. It is simply night-time clenching or grinding of the teeth. Bruxism can cause significant damage to the teeth and tmj. It can be reponsible for tension type headache pain. It is best managed with a custom fitted nightime splint that if designed well can minimize or eliminate all of these effects.
Dental question. Bruxism is an unconscious grinding of the teeth, possibly caused by firing off of central neurons that transmit nerve excitation down the trigeminal nerve that innervates the muscles of mastication. Therefore, constant grinding can lead to alteration of tooth surfaces which then leads to altered bite and finally to more muscle spasm. This is a dental problem and you need a dentist for help.
Definitely. Yes it can. Grinding or bruxism will overwork the jaw joints which can lead to TMJ problems and/or it can fracture teeth, fillings, and porcelain crowns. It can also wear down your teeth through out the mouth which could cost thousands to fix. The best treatment is to make a night guard by your dentist that is comfortable so you can wear it and use it.