Is there a way to test or otherwise "guage" the quality of the air that I breathe in my home? Some air quality test or something?

Air quality. The radio and newspapers do give air quality report of each county of each big city daily. Based on that, some schools (kids school!) can be closed to protect the kids. Small cities do not have air quality report as there is not much traffic (main culprit of bad air) or heavy industries to pollute the air. Know the song "the air that i breathe" by the hollies? Check that on youtube. Have fun!