What does elevated red blood cells mean?

More then normal. That is the opposite of anemia. which is low red blood cells. So you have TOO MUCH RBCs. That could be related to many causes, so of which could be very serious. Further testing needed. If you are a smoker... stop.
Hemochromatosis. It really depends upon how elevated the red blood cell (rbc) count is, and what the other elements of the CBC (complete blood count) show. If rbc is slightly elevated and the hbg (hemoglobin) and hct (hematocrit) are within the normal range then it probably does not mean anything. There is a genetic disorder known as hemochromatosis in which rbcs are elevated, but HGB level will also be elevated.

Related Questions

Went to dr, I have to see radiology and urology, what does it mean to have blood in urine, elevated red blood cells. But no pain when urinanating.?

Multiple cause. Main ones are urinary or kidney infection. Kidney stones ( can cause painless hematuria), blood disorder, cancer, medications ( like Aspirin n penicillin ). Read more...
Many things. However, when there is painless hematuria (blood in urine) a malignancy needs to be ruled out. If you have elevated red blood cells, could either be reactionary or pathologic. Another reason to keep your doctor appointments. Hope this helps. Read more...
Blood in urine. Blood in urine is abnormal needs to be evaluated by a urologist to rule out issues like cancer and kidney problems. Read more...