Does artificial protein and glutamine damage kidneys? Protein 20-40g, glutamine 5-10g. This is taken mostly on workout days. Thanks.

No. As a general rule that amount of protein and glutamine can be taken and absorbed without any side effects. That is based on normal kidney/metabolic function. Your body can handle even a larger amount of protein under ideal conditions. Remember to always hydrate well especially on workout days.
Maybe. You are unlikely to need more than 1g protein/kg body wt/day. The extra protein and glutamine (an amino acid) above and beyond dietary intake are unlikely to truly improve athletic performance. We know extra protein is harmful in lab animals with kidney disease. An important problem with nearly all supplements is that they are unregulated and may have adulterants. I recommend avoiding.