Risk factors for cardiovascular disease and what measures to reduce it?

Multiple. Rf include: 1. Hypertension: control salt intake, exercise, and meds if needed. 2. Smoking: strong risk factor, avoid at all costs. 3. Diabetes: weight loss and diet, meds if needed. 4. Hyperlipidemia: diet and meds if needed. 5. Family history: this one cannot be avoided.
Multiple. Genetic, hyperlipidemia, high bp, diabetes, smoking, obesity etc. You can reduce the risks by risk modification otherwise known as primary prevention. Diet, exercise, no smoking.