Variable. Variable. From not significant to serious complications, dependent upon degree. Can be minimal or minor requiring no treatment. Many procedures available to treat, from minor surgery to major surgery, with varying results. Complex question requiring consultation with colorectal specialist.
Hygiene. Rectum falling through the anus getting worse.
Several. Digital rectal exam sigmoidoscopy after bowel cleansing colonoscopy after bowel full prep.
Special XRay tests. Look up information about barium enema and also defacography.
See below. Rectal prolapse occurs when a portion of rectum essentially turns inside out and protrudes through the anus. It is assocated with excessive straining and worsens constipation. It can improve with stool softeners and fiber but often requries surgical correction.
Turns inside out. Rectal prolapse is the process of the rectum folding inside itself then passing out the anus. It tends to get larger over time. Initially it may pull back in on its own but eventually will need to be pushed back in. It can stretch the sphincter muscles and the nerve leading to problems with bowel control. Surgery is usually needed but can now be done laparoscopically in most cases.
Rectum falls out. The entire rectum loosens and protrudes through the anus. I looks like a cauliflower hanging out of your anus. This requires surgical repair by a general or colorectal surgeon.
Surgery. Pelvic prolapse, and, specifically, rectal prolapse, can be caused by: pregnancy, childbirth, obesity, menopause, chronic cough (asthma), to name a few. The only effective and long-term treatment is surgery, but this is almost always out-patient, with a fairly quick recovery.
Surgery. Surgery is often required to treat true rectal prolapse. Treatment of constipation is helpful.
Physical exam. One can generally see prolapse by inspection while the patient is bearing down.
Examination. Rectal prolapse can be internal and not visible or external and visible. If external, it is usually obvious. You can see and feel a round lump of tissue the size of a base ball that you can push back in at the anus. Internal is seen on dynamic MRI or video defecography. Surgery is almost always indicated, but see you colorectal surgeon to discuss option.
Falling out. Prolapse of the rectum is basically when the tissue that lines the rectum falls down and out the anus. Almost like a sleeve that turns inside out and falls down. Sometimes due to straining as with chronic constipation, othertimes due to collagen problems. Many reasons that this can happen, though it is rare.
Yes. Depending on its extent, it can be. It can lead to necrosis of the wall of the rectum. Also bleeding can occur.
Rarely. An incarcerated rectal prolapse is rare. That would be dangerous. Occasionally there can be major bleeding from a prolapse. In frail patients I usually don't repair it.
Constipation. Constipation, straining and often you can feel part of your rectum bulging through the anus during bowel movements.
Anal mass. Rectal prolapse is the passage of a part of the rectum out through the anus. The patient usually becomes aware of something hanging out when it is time to wipe. Early on it may "reduce", or go back in, on it's own but as it enlarges it may need to be pushed back. Initially will only come out with bowel movements but later will come out with coughing etc. Usually will need surgery.