Aortic stenosis. Aortic stenosis is most commonly caused by age-related progressive calcification of a normal (three-leafed) aortic valve (>50% of cases). Other causes include calcification of a congenital bicuspid aortic valve (30-40% of cases) and acute rheumatic fever (less than 10% of cases). Diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia may speed up the age-related calcification and degeneration of aortic valves.
Age, infection. Aortic stenosis is a narrowing of the aortic valve. This causes a characteristic murmur heard on the right upper chest near the breast bone. It sometimes happens with age or after infections such as endocarditis or sometimes rheumatic fever.
RF, bicuspid valve. Three major causes of aortic stenosis: 1. Bicuspid aortic valve (congenital) =born with it (two cusps instead of the normal 3 cusps) 2. Rhematic fever sequelae (acquired after strep throat) 3. Degenerative disease in a tricuspid valve (acquired).
Depends. It depends on the cause and severity. Many older persons may have some degree of aortic stenosis, which is a narrowing of the orifice of the aortic valve effectively limiting the blood flow the heart can supply to the body and making the heart work harder. For many, it is mild to moderate and may never cause them any issue in their lifetimes. For others it may progress to requiring a valve replace.
Variable. It can vary anywhere from mild to critical. What did your friend's doctor say?
Sometimes. There is surgery for this but is only indicated for a when stenosis becomes bad and your overall condition matters too. Consult your doctor for a surgeons opinion.
Usually replacement. Usually surgery for aortic stenosis is aortic valve replacement.
Depends. It is not just the presence of aortic stenosis, but the arrival of symptoms that determine whether the condition needs to be treated aggressively. With the development of chest pain, shortness of breath, and syncope, or fainting, the need for surgery increases. Otherwise, medical therapy may be all that is necessary for a long life.
It depends. If your valve is severely steno tic you have a life limited expectancy of less than 5 years unless it is corrected by replacing the valve.
Depends. Slight stenosis and minimal pressure gradient can be tolerated for a long time. Example congenital bicuspid valve patients can be aged. Once symptomatic aortic stenosis with syncope, angina, heart failure, the historic data suggest less than a year survival. That's why these patients are identified by murmur, echo and treated surgically.
Vague question. You need t know the gradient across the stenosis. High gradients require valve replacement, as the left ventricle will begin to enlarge (hypertrophy) which can eventually lead to heart failure. Echocardiography and/or left ventricular angiography performed by an interventional cardiologist can define the gradient, then you both can decide on best treatment options.
Fixed cardiac output. With aorttic stenosis the amount of blood pumped by the heart is fixed below a specific threshold as it cannot increase the output even with increased demand as with exercise etc. Consequently, the heart, the brain or any other organ will not get the increased blood supply it needs and therefore sudden death from irregular heart beats, myocardial infarction or syncope and brain ischemia can kill.
Depends on symptoms. Patients with uncorrected aortic stenosis have a poor survival: half of the patients that develop angina (chest pain) will die within 5 years, half of the patients that develop syncope (passing out) will die within 3 years, and half of the patients that develop heart failure will die within 2 years. Aortic valve replacement can pretty much normalize the life span and improve symptoms markedly.
A valve problem. Aortic stenosis is a hardening of the last valve in the heart; this valve is the last thing blood passes through before it is sent out to the body. As you would expect, this valve is called the aortic valve. Symptoms of aortic stenosis can include chest pain, passing out and heart failure symptoms. The treatment of severe aortic stenosis is almost always surgical.
Narrow valve. Narrowing of the valve leaving the heart which is progressive, has no cure besides surgery. Once at least moderate needs yearly follow up.
Small valve. The aortic valve opens when the heart contracts, allowing the blood to flow from the heart to the aorta which supplies the body. When aortic stenosis occurs, the aortic valve narrows, impeding the flow of blood out of the heart. If the patients develops any symptoms, surgical replacement is needed.
Narrowing of the. Aortic valve by calcification causing fixed restriction of blood flow out of the heart.