Frequent moderate to severe tongue biting (bleeding) while eating. Some periodic trouble swallowing. Several months of bone chips from rear lingual gums?

Discuss with dentist. This is certainly a very complex question and best discussed with your dentist, a facio-maxillary oral surgeon or an otolaryngologist.
Why are you waiting. It appears your teeth are chipping away, probably from cavities. The sharp edges are irritating and cutting your tongue, also making it difficult to swallow. Call a dentist asap for an evaluation and treatment plan. If there happens to be no problem with your teeth you will be referred to a physician.
Needs evaluation. These symptoms may represent a loss of coordination of the muscles responsible for chewing, swallowing and tongue movement. Potentially serious degenerative, vascular and tumor related causes are possible. Als certainly needs to be considered. Make an appointment with your family doctor for an evaluation.