Is there an over-the-counter treatment for arthritis, without seeing a doctor?

Yes. Ibuprofen, Naproxen are two drugs available without prescription. Follow the label instructions and read the side effects (stomach upset is most common). It should not be used if you have stomach ulcers. Acetaminophen can relieve minor to moderate arthritis pain. Avoid it if you have liver problems. All medications (including over the counter) can have side effects. Read the package insert.
Arthritis strenght t. Tylenol (acetaminophen) studies fail to show any increased efficacy of prescription arthritis meds over otc nsaids and tylenol (acetaminophen).