Migraine. One of the theories behind migraines is that they're caused by over-stretched blood vessels in the brain, which stimulate pain receptors and cause the pain. The features of migraine include nausea and vomiting, light and sound sensitivity and (often) an aurora preceding the headache consisting of visual distortions such as flashes of lights and "sparkles.".
Not sure. One possible type of headache that could be described that way would be due to temporal arteritis, an inflammation of the artery in front of your ear. If you are having any loss of vision with the headache, see a doctor immediately. Another possibility might be a type of migraine. Both can be treated but need medical evaluation.
Headache. The most frightening of vascular headaches is subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This is often the "worst headache of your life" and needs emergency care. Migraines and other headaches are thought to be vascular in origin.