Yes. It is effective in killing many of the organisms that you take care of with handwashing, however, it is better to wash them for around 20 seconds making sure you get the tips as well as around the fingers if given a choice.
Depends. I think both are adequate as long as they are done correctly. I am not sure there has been a lot of studies in this area but I do know that soap and water is better for one particular bacteria called C. dificile- the main things are time and contact so that the whole hand gets covered and the rubbing helps get bacteria off the hands.
To actually wash. Stuff off of hands- soap and water. The hand sanitizer just kills germs - it isn't designed for removing gunk off of hands.
How can I clean my hands to test my blood sugar if no soap is available? Can I use hand sanitizer and rinse it off with water from my water bottle?
Hand sanitizer. Using hand sanitizer when no soap or water is available is reasonable. No need to rinse it off as it will evaporate while rubbing the skin. Hand sanitizer contains alcohol similar to what is used before blood draws.