Will a chest xray show acid reflux or the effects of it? Will the throat be seen as well or would that require another xray?

Barium swallow. A chest radiograph (xray) won't show acid reflux and may not show the throat region. A barium swallow/upper GI series allows the radiologist to evaluate for gastroesophageal reflux and its effects. Endoscopy is also a good study but more invasive. The throat can be seen during the barium swallow and endoscopy.
No, very little chan. Chest XR shows very little throat, unless large mass is present.