Severe sore throat, pain in my chest when I cough, vomiting, and nasal congestion. What's wrong with me? (white bumps on inside of throat)

Viral infection. Sounds like viral upper respiratory infection which can result in bronchitis, nasal congestion, and sore throat. Sometimes vomiting and diarrhea can also occur. The bumps are reflections of reaction to infection in back of throat. Sometimes get superimposed bacterial infection. You can always consult physician for examination to make sure of correct diagnosis.