Have severe fluid retention in both feet. The tops of both feet and ankles are swollen causing numbness in toes. Can this cause vessel damage?

Swelling. I would suggest you consult with a vascular surgeon. May want to see a neurologist too.
No. The swelling won't cause vessel damage, but it can result from veins which are damaged (like varicose veins). Other causes can be important such as congestive heart failure, kidney problems, excessive salt retention. See your doctor to assess it.