Could consuming low glycemic index sugar lead to diabetes?

Can be tricky. Glycemic index refers to the impact that food has on the blood sugar level. Some foods are absorbed very rapidly and raise the blood sugar rapidly (sugar, simple carbohydrates) while others have very low impact on blood sugar and thus a low glycemic index (meats, fat). There are some "sugars" promoted as low glycemic index, but this almost is contradictory. Moderation is the key with diabetes risk.