I am on my feet for 6 hours a day 5 days a week at work. A couple of days ago the ball of my right foot started hurting bad. What is going on?

Pain in forefoot. Metatarsalgia ( forefoot pain ) could be just due to standing for long time. If it persists then you will need x-ray of the foot to rule out stress fracture , fracture of the sesamoid bone, intertarsal bony union or arthritis in one of the small joints. Wearing of broad hard sole shoe may help resolve the problem.
Overload or neuroma. It is likely that you either aggravated a neuroma or just are overloading the metatarsal heads. Make sure you have good achilles flexibility. Do heel cord stretches. And get a metatarsal pad to put in your shoe to offload that area (try hapad.Com).