After taking albuterol for eia, my heart rate will rise to 180+ for an extended period with moderate exertion. Can I safely push myself harder?

Levalbuterol. You may want to talk to your doctor about Levalbuterol (xopenex®). This medication is the active enantiomer (r)-albuterol and has 100-fold more potent binding to beta-2 receptors than (s)-albuterol. In english, you may have less heart racing/palpitations on Levalbuterol than with albuterol.
Maybe. It depends on your age and fitness level. Your max heart rate is calculated by 220 minus your age. Maximum effort training (90-100% hr) should only be done for short periods by someone who is in excellent shape, who has been cleared by a physician. This would require an office visit and possibly testing based on your past medical history. The stress on your heart can be dangerous.