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What are the complications of chicken pox?

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In brief: Complications of chicken pox

Chicken pox is a miserable illness but is almost always harmless.
Complications can, however, occur. The most common is a bacterial infection of the blisters. This should be treated promptly with antibiotics. Occasionally there is bleeding into the blisters due to the virus interfering with blood clotting mechanisms. This is short-lasting and easily treated. In the recovery phase, some children may become clumsy and unable to walk properly. This is due to inflammation in a specific part of the brain. Although alarming, the symptoms will settle as the rash disappears. No treatment is needed and recovery will be complete. The varicella virus itself can cause a severe pneumonia. This can become life-threatening when complicated by additional bacterial infection but usually only occurs in adults.


There is about a two per cent risk of the varicella-zoster virus affecting the foetus if chicken pox is caught in early pregnancy. The greatest risk appears to be between the 13th and 20th week. In such an event the doctor will fully discuss the risks and how to determine if the baby has been harmed. If the mother has the first signs of the rash in the few days before or after delivery, the baby is at risk of developing severe chicken pox. This risk can be minimised by injecting the baby with varicella-zoster immunoglobulin. This is prepared from blood donors who have had chicken pox and whose blood thus contains high levels of antibody against the virus. Chicken pox in the second half of pregnancy, but before the last week, carries no risk to the baby.


Other groups at risk of severe complications from chicken pox are those with an impaired immune system. This includes patients receiving therapy for cancer and those on oral corticosteroid treatment (for example, people with severe asthma). If they have not had chicken pox before, these people must see their doctor immediately after any contact with the infection for appropriate treatment.


Chicken pox does not strike twice, except in very rare and unusual cases. One infection gives lifelong immunity.

In brief: Complications of chicken pox

Chicken pox is a miserable illness but is almost always harmless.
Complications can, however, occur. The most common is a bacterial infection of the blisters. This should be treated promptly with antibiotics. Occasionally there is bleeding into the blisters due to the virus interfering with blood clotting mechanisms. This is short-lasting and easily treated. In the recovery phase, some children may become clumsy and unable to walk properly. This is due to inflammation in a specific part of the brain. Although alarming, the symptoms will settle as the rash disappears. No treatment is needed and recovery will be complete. The varicella virus itself can cause a severe pneumonia. This can become life-threatening when complicated by additional bacterial infection but usually only occurs in adults.


There is about a two per cent risk of the varicella-zoster virus affecting the foetus if chicken pox is caught in early pregnancy. The greatest risk appears to be between the 13th and 20th week. In such an event the doctor will fully discuss the risks and how to determine if the baby has been harmed. If the mother has the first signs of the rash in the few days before or after delivery, the baby is at risk of developing severe chicken pox. This risk can be minimised by injecting the baby with varicella-zoster immunoglobulin. This is prepared from blood donors who have had chicken pox and whose blood thus contains high levels of antibody against the virus. Chicken pox in the second half of pregnancy, but before the last week, carries no risk to the baby.


Other groups at risk of severe complications from chicken pox are those with an impaired immune system. This includes patients receiving therapy for cancer and those on oral corticosteroid treatment (for example, people with severe asthma). If they have not had chicken pox before, these people must see their doctor immediately after any contact with the infection for appropriate treatment.


Chicken pox does not strike twice, except in very rare and unusual cases. One infection gives lifelong immunity.
Quality HealthCare Team
Quality HealthCare Team
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