Can teeth grow back at age 30?

No. Your body produces 32 permanent teeth. Some may be congenitally missing, some people have extra (supernumerary) teeth. But generally if a permanent tooth is lost there is no replacement. See your Dentist for a clinical and x-ray examination to determine exactly what's going on.
No. Your adult teeth do not regrow. Your wisdom teeth may be erupting If you feel like you have teeth "regrowing" in the back of your mouth. .