Polycystic ? There are polycystic ovaries and polycystic kidneys. Polycystic ovary syndrome is imbalance of a female sex hormones. This may lead to menstrual cycle changes, cysts in the ovaries, trouble getting pregnant, diabetes, overweight, hypertension, hirsutism etc. Polycystic adult kidneys have multiple cysts in kidneys dominant inheritance. Develop hypertension, sometimes kidney failure, brain aneurysm.