Cavity filled on a molar tooth but the teeth that are several away from the tooth filled are painful. I didn't have pain until I had the cavity fixed?

Pain. Probably unrelated and just coincidental. The only way to know for sure, however, is to return to your Dentist for a reexamination. The sooner you call, the sooner the cause of the pain can be diagnosed and treated, so please call now.
Referred Pain. Was the filling deep? If so, then pain can travel down the entire nerve trunk. Ask your treating dentist to explain your specific situation.
A few possibilities- The pain on the other teeth may be completely coincidental and unrelated to your recent treatment; it could be referred pain from the tooth treated as patients incorrectly perceive the actual source of the pain; the cold air and/or water used during treatment might have temporarily sensitized other teeth. Call and discuss this with the dentist who treated you.