Does deep cut require tetanus shot? Whats the time limit under which I should get the shot? A long sewing machine needle passed through the finger fully

No shot needed. If it's a non-rusty sewing needle, it's unlikely you will need tetanus shot. This shot lasts 5-10 years. If you haven't had the shot over 6 years. It;s best to get another one. This will protect you for future deep wound or cut injuries that may put you at risk for tetanus.