Hi! I had unprotected sex about a week ago and have, in the past couple of days, noticed internal vaginal itching and discomfort. Examining the area in a mirror showed rough skin around the vaginal opening and what appear to be bits of loose skin.

Exam. time for a pelvic exam and BC/STD review. You may have a vaginal irritation or infection, you may have chaffing from intercourse or dryness, from lack of sexual secretions. ALWAYS use at least condoms PLUS spermicidal foam, jelly, or vaginal inserts. If you are newly active, I would suspect irritation from friction; however, this requires examination.
Infection! Your description matches a yeast infection, but there's always concern for STDs. You should see a gynecologist for an exam and screening tests; if you decide to treat with an over the counter product (like Monistat-7) and things don't improve, then it's even more important to get checked out in person.