What are the side effects of using steroids?

Many & inevitable

With most medications, there are possible side effects. With steroids, they are guaranteed. The only question is which one. The lowest dose for the shortest period should be used, if there is no alternative.
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Depends on type

Most commonly, "steroids" are glucocorticoids like prednisone. They cause S/Es in proportion to dose & duration. They include weight gain, high blood pressure, diabetes, osteoporosis, bruising/bleeding, infections, cataracts, insomnia, mood changes, and adrenal insufficiency. A short days-long course may not cause any of these but higher dose or longer duration treatment should be monitored.
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Mood changes Prednisone Diabetes Osteoporosis Adrenal insufficiency Insomnia Bleeding Bruising High blood pressure Weight gain