If you eat too much sugar in one sitting, is there any amount of exercise you can do to avoid it turning into stored fat (that day)?

Burn baby Burn. You simply need to convert too much sugar, what ever that amount is, into calories. These are the calories you need to burn off. Find a list of known exercises and the amount of calories the exercise burns per hour. Divide the first by the second, and start exercising for that period of time. Try not to get disappointed when you find out just how much exercise it takes to burn calories off.
Avoid too much sugar. you can probably formulate an equation for too much sugar in relation to any amount of exercise, you can probably ask your doctor about it, I am available for second opinion if needed.