What are the possible ways I could have injured my hip bone if I didn't break it when I fell and hit the hardwood floor?

Many: pain from soft. from soft tissue, not the protein+hydroxyapatite bone matrix does not transmit pain signals. Pain nerve signals are from soft tissue surrounding (muscles/tendons/ligaments), covering (periosteum) & inside (bone marrow). Bleeding within & lifting periosteum off bone is main source of pain from fractures yet can occur without Fx (esp. only ones visible on any X-Ray).
Confused part. A lot of people confuse the hip the part that rotates your leg and inserts into your pelvic bone with their trochanter. If you think of the upper end of the femur as a letter Y one of the ends is the hip. The other end is the trochanter. That is the part that you feel when you stand up sassy like and try to show someone "attitude" by putting your hands on your pelvis and saying "Make me"