I have heard that if a gallbladder is not functioning properly the bile can back up and pour into places that it is not supposed to, can somebody elaborate on this condition, and what effect it might have on digestion?

Bad Gallbladder. If the gallbladder doesn't function bile usually doesn't back up to badly, but it can-this would normally flow into the liver and blood. Most commonly gallbladder issues cause pain, especially after eating a fatty meal. The pain is usually in the abdominal region or can be referred to the left shoulder.
No back up. no back up or congestion of system but can develop pain after eating with ineffectual gallbladder function. CCK HIDA scan was used for years to assess for this issue known as acalculus cholecystitis with hypo/akinetic gallbladder. Treatment is to remove the poorly functioning gallbladder. Best to discuss further with general surgeon. Hope this was helpful. Dr. R .
You are probably. talking about a condition called biliary dyskinesia, which is improper emptying of gallbladder upon stimuli. Lots of information is available, if you google this topic. It is too complicated to explain here.
ERCP. The ususal cause of a bile leak is a traumatic injury to the duct. with an obstruction of the duct bile may back up into the liver ducts.An MRCP is used for diagnosis.