Can bone grafting particle material be placed into the jawbone where there is a failed dental implant? Or, is a worthless material for this purpose?

Bone grafting. The cause of the implant failure should be determined. In the hands of a competent Oral Surgeon or Periodontist, Bone Augmentation absolutely works. There are various techniques and materials. Some work better than others. Discuss your options with a specialist and your restorative dentist.
Yes it can. I had the procedure done myself....