You Certainly Can
If you're getting food and debris stuck in the hole, or it hurts, then clean it out the best you can and try to place an over-the-counter temporary filling in there.
But, that's not easy to do. If you're not having any pain, and you can keep it clean, and you're seeing a dentist in a couple of weeks, you probably can get by without a temporary filling. Judgement call (like so many things).