Several Aspects. You usually spend time going over your past medical history, family history, surgical history, and sport history. Then there is a physical exam of the patient that can also include a more focused exam depending on the history. A doctor may also order other tests like blood work or imagingj- again, depending on the history and exam.
Sports physical. Includes a thorough history and physical exam to allow you to safely participate in activities and access any risks you may have for injury and recommend any rehab/exercises prior to activity. There are a few history questions that are slightly different for males and females but otherwise it's the same. http://www.acsm.org/docs/brochures/pre-participation-physical-examinations.pdf.