Can tooth rubbing up against side of tongue cause white patch of skin? It peels off and looks normal afterwords

Tongue lesion. It could, but you could also have a a condition related to fungal infection. When you run the patch off, is it red underneath? This could be a condition called pseudombranous candidiasis. You should have your dentist check it out. It's probably nothing serious but any lesions in the mouth that don't heal in 2 weeks should be looked at by your dentist.