What superficial artery or vein descends in back the lower leg?

Short Saphenous vein. This vein would be the most likely one that you would easily see. You would not see any arterial structures in the back of the lower leg.

Related Questions

Will I develop varicose veins in my lower leg from rigorous. I injured both my femoral vein and artery and had graft repair and a end to end?

Not likely. If you had a repair of the femoral artery and vein, i would be more concerned about deep vein problems than varicose veins. In either case, i would recommend the use of compression stockings to prevent any long- term issues. Read more...
Not necessarily. If your vein and artery stay open there's no reason for that you can have familial sources for your veins if they develop or if the vein occludes. Read more...