Can osteoporosis or osteopenia cause severe joint pain?

No. The risk of osteoporosis is fracture. There is loss of bone density, impairment of bone integrity and strength. Loss of structural support and thus risk of fracture. People with both osteoporosis and osteopenia can fracture, but those with osteoporosis have a great risk since their bones are weaker. The joint pain would occur depending on the location of the fracture in a joint.
No. These conditions are painless, unless they lead to a bone fracture (commonly in the middle of the back vertebrae, or after a fall on the wrist, hip, shoulder etc.).