Can you get a staph infection from someone who is a a healthy person that doesn't have an infection but carries the staph bacteria. (not mrsa).

Possibly. Staph lives on our skin and we have differing immune capabilities. If you are compromised you may have the chance of infection through a cut or sore.
Yes/see below. You can become a staph carrier from direct contact with a staph carrier or their nasal secretiions(mrsa or mssa). If you become a staph carrier you would then be more prone to getting a staph infection if you have a break in your skin or get a viral respiratory infection.