Fish oil rathers. Actually omega 3 fatty acids (fish oils) rather than vitamins have anti-inflammatory properties but you have to get to the 3-5 gram range per day minimum for that effect. If tolerated you can take up to 16 grams per day.
Not really. There are 150 to 300 types of arthritis. Vitamin deficiency can cause a variety of medical conditions. In general a vitamin deficiency does not cause arthritis but can be seen in some musculoskeltal conditions. The most prominent is osteoporosis and vitamin d. But vitamin d deficiency also causes muscle weakness. Vitamin b-12 deficiency is associated neurological and hematologic aching.
Supplements. Actually fish oil supplements, omega-3-fatty acids, rather than vitamins specifically are helpful in treating inflammatory conditions. Levels of 3grams of o3fa daily and up to a maximum of 15grams (if tolerated) have been shown to have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects.