Would a person with neonate repaired patent ductus arteriosus be at greater risk for heart damage or heart disease due to the congenital defect?

Hardly. Not to worry you , but even some very, very good surgeons have mistaken a wrong blood vessel for the PDA and ligated it instead. This includes the left pulmonary artery and even the descending aorta. Fortunately this is extremely rare. Other than that, there is basically no further risk of damage or disease.
No. Ligation procedure of patent ductus does not even touch heart.
Normal child. Not at all . Treat your child as a normal child, which he is.
PDA . If no other problem than the repaired pda, then risks return virtually to normal. Sometimes more than one problem is present however.
However. We need to watch out for aortic valve and other aortic diseases.