Do formula-fed babies grow faster than breastfed babies?

No. I find it varies with the child. I have many bf kids that track 1-2 growth zones above their lenght zone for the first 2 years and settle back down as the get older to be consistent with healthy growth. Parents that confuse sucking activity with hunger are more likely to overfeed baby since volume not as limited as breast would be.
Yes. Usually bottle fed babies gain weight faster initially. This usually evens out although there is concern that bottle fed babies are more likely to become overweight.
No. But they are more likely to gain more weight, and more likely to be overweight when they grow up.