What are some causes for lower left abdomnial pain, and how long show I wait in pain before I see my doctor a second time for it?

Left lower quadrant. There are many causes for llq pain including diverticulitis, ovarian cysts, infections, constipation, kidney stone that is descending down the urinary tract, abdominal wall hernia or other mass. When in doubt, a ct scan with and without contrast can give you alot of information.
Spasm, inflammation. Diverticulitis and irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) are probably the most common causes of left lower abdominal pain. Diverticulitis is inflammatory and needs antibiotics, sometimes surgery. Ibs is a functional disorder, with alterations in how the intestinal tract responds to stimuli. These can be hard to tell apart, so if you've had pain for 12 hours or more it seems wise to consult your doctor.