Lately my bowels have been extremely sore. I feel like I need to use the restroom more and my rectum is slightly protruding. What can this be?

Rectal prolapse. Without seeing you, my best guess is either a rectal prolapse or swollen hemorrhoids. Rectal prolapse is when the rectum pushes to the outside, and it can be just a bit or quite a lot. However, swollen hemorrhoids can appear similar to folks who aren't specialists. See a colorectal surgeon, who will be able to evaluate your concerns and guide you about treatment.