Do frequent sharp pains in fingers and knuckles mean arthritis.?

Sometimes. Frequent sharp pains in fingers and knuckles could be associated with arthritis. However, those symptoms can also be associated with other conditions such as tenosynovitis (trigger finger), tendinitis, and nerve entrapment syndromes or neuritis, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. See a board certified hand surgeon for a comprehensive evaluation.
Arthritis. This sounds suspicious for arthritis. This pain is typically worse with swelling which occurs in the am and will decrease through the day . It may initially feel stiff but with movement improve.