What evidene exists on short-term cocaine use on the cardiovasulature, heart, brain blood supply, or the central nervous system? Is damage reversible?

Vasoconstriction. Cocaine causes blood vessels to shrink down (vasoconstrict). This increases blood pressure and decreases blood flow to vital organs. This can cause strokes, kidney failure, heart attacks, etc. The constriction is temporary, but the damage can be permanent.
Not always. Cocaine can be associated with cardiac arrhythmias that cause sudden death, which last I heard isn't reversible outside of the health care system. This is especially true when Cocaine is used with alcohol. Other kinds of damage take chronic use, and there is some reversibility if people stop in time. It can cause cardiomyopathy, a scarring, which is not reversible. It also can cause stroke.