Is gout a symptom of CKD or does it cause ckd?

Either is possible. Gout with accompanying hyperuricemia can cause kidney disease (uric acid nephropathy). It can also be due to kidney disease, as a decline in kidney function is often associated with increased uric acid levels. Anyone with gout should have there kidney function checked regularly. A nephrologist is usually skilled to detect which is the primary disorder.
Neither. Gout is caused by either producing too much uric acid or not peeing out enough uric acid. The excess then crystalized into your joints, causing the pain and swelling. You can have gout with healthy kidneys and ckd without gout.
Possible. There is some data on high uric acid level and chronic kidney disease; treating high uric acid level even without gout is shown to be beneficial.
No. Gout is not a symptom of chronic renal failure. Ch. Renal failure can rarely occur after many years of gout/ high uric acid levels by causing kidney stones.
Gout and CKD. Gout may be an independent risk factor for CKD and CKD can result in increased uric acid see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23543594 http://www.clinicaladvisor.com/gout-management-in-patients-with-ckd/article/315693/