Depends on cause. There are many causes for sciatica. Some causes respond well to osteopathic manipulation while others require surgical correction. The first step is to figure out the cause. Then you and your doc can plan out what to do.
Yes. Acute sciatica has an excellent chance to heal spontaneously even without any interventions. Chronic sciatica, can be managed symptomatically with interventional procedures (pain blocks) or surgically (by a spine surgeon).
Few things can help. Sciatica is inflammation of a nerve in the lumbar spine usually due to a disc herniation. This inflammation can usually be treated successfully with anti-inflammatories (ie. Ibuprofen), physical therapy, and possibly epidural injections. Only when these treatment failed is a surgical option discussed. Surgery would involve a decompression of the nerve root being pinched.
Sciatica. Low back, buttock and "shooting" leg pain are all symptoms of a pinched nerve. It sounds like you may have that problem. If the pain is severe and limiting your activity still, the best non-narcotic medications that I have found to work for my patients are antiinflammatories such as Ibuprofen or Naproxen which are over-the-counter medications. Other non-narcotic medications include tramadol (ultram) which requires a prescription and nerve-pain medications such as gabapentin. These are all to be taken for temporary pain relief. This type of pain typically resolves with time. Ask your primary physician about these if the pain is still limiting you. If it is still going on for more than a month an MRI may be helpful to help sort out what is going on and there could be other potential treatments outside of surgery that could benefit you.
Yes there is. As said in another answer, determine the cause. Osteopathic treatment, craniosacral treatment and acupuncture/chinese medicine can have a profoundly positive affect. I know of cases where these modalities prevented a patient from having surgery! pyriformis entrapment which is a muscle) can lead to sciatic pain as well.
Depends on cause. If the sciatica is from arthritis/bony overgrowth at the spine, the goal is to keep inflammation down (avoiding certain movements/activities, taking ibuprofen, etc). If the sciatica is from a muscle pull, physical therapy can help. If the sciatica is from trauma to the area, the symptoms will resolve with time.
Core Exercises. Typically core strengthening exercises are the best to help relieve pressure and forces in the spine. I would try and google some or look them up on youtube to see descriptions. If you can do them yourself, wonderful otherwise ask your doctor to get a referral to a good physical therapist for further assistance.