Pain in a toe past 5 months?

A few things. Pain in a toe can be any number of things - gout, arthritis, a neuroma between your toes, a pinched nerve in your back, a corn/callus, bad fitting shoes, etc. Anything that lasts 5 months should probably be evaluated by your physician.
5 months is too long. 5 months with pain anywhere in your body is a big, red flag. The pain could be attributable to many conditions, so see your podiatrist as soon as possible for an evaluation.