Mostly pros. The pros of a trach are that you can breath! it is much more comfortable than having a breathing tube through the mouth or nose. It takes some getting used to. More secretions with a trach, and caregivers need to be trained to care for it.
Many. A tracheostomy is a tube or opening from the neck into the windpipe. It is frequently performed when someone can't breath without a ventilator or when their larynx (voice box) isn't functioning well. It allows them to breath through the neck. It is associated with rare but fatal complications as well as trouble clearing secretions from the lungs and requires special care.
Ventilation. Tracheostomies are usually done when patients are on mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period of time, or likely to be on for a long time. They can also be used to help with weaning from a ventilator. Today, they are commonly done at the bedside by a minimally invasive technique. They can lead to tracheal scarring, and in some instances, significant bleeding from erosion into a surrounding ar.