What do sph, cyl and axis mean on an eye test?

Specific parts of Rx. To expand on dr. Proffitt's answer, sph = sphere; if this is a negative number, the prescription is a myopic or nearsighted prescription and a positive number dictates a farsighted or hyperopic prescription. Cyl = cylinder or the amount or power of the astigmatism correction. Axis is the direction in which the astigmatism correction is placed in the glasses.
Shape of eye. These are terms used by the od or md to describe measurements of the shape of the eye. They determine your prescription. They are probably meaningless to you. Important for the dispenser of your eye wear.

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Need doctor's help! What do sph, cyl and axis mean on an eye test?

These are. Some of the parts to a prescription for glasses or contact lenses. Sphere is the amount of overall nearsightedness or farsightedness. Cylinder and axis are the amount and location of the amount of astigmatism.