Small lump on my head above my temple not painful, loss of vishion for 4-5 secs and head aches and dizziness?

Loss of vision, etc. I would see a neurologist or go to your nearest er for an evaluation. There are numerous possibilities - some serious. Get help right away.

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I'm 17 I have a medium sized lump on the back right of my head. It's extremely sore. When I touch it, it makes me dizzy and I've had bad headaches.

Go get checked. If infection, will get worse until properly treated. Impossible to guess what it is without examination. Good luck.
Get it checked. Sounds as if there has been some kind of trauma? Fall/impact/other? It definitely should be checked by a dr, likely in an er so ct or other imaging can be obtained if indicated.

Discovered small lump near/in front of right ear. It's painful and swollen. Causing headaches, eye/ear ache, and dizziness. What could it be?

Lymph node. You may have a small swollen lymph gland...minor infection. If it becomes hard and immobile then, I'd have it checked out. You may just try placing something cold on it to see if the swelling would go down. You may feel better. You may also end up with a sore throat or some other pharyngeal type of infection.