Do short-term side effects of alcohol include disrupted sleep, temporary blindness and shortness of breath?

Not all of these. It can cause sleep diturbance, no shortness of breath, and no blindness but can cause blurred vision.
A bit odd. Middle insomnia is not unusual when drinking alcohol at night, as the alcohol wears off yoru nervous system gets irritable - jiteriness, tremors etc can be signs of withdrawal and some folks can feel short of breath as the anxiety associated with that kicks in. Temporary blindness seems atypical. In any even, with these symptoms medical eval would be indicated as well as eval for alcohol problem.