What type of doctor should I see for a sharp, shooting pain on the back of my head behind my right ear?

Shooting pain. See your regular family doctor for an examination to sort out the cause of your shooting pain. The pain could be coming from your head or neck area or from the ear.
Sharp head/ear pain. Otolaryngologists are an excellent choice to evaluate this problem. Also, a neurologist would evaluate this type of complaint. Sharp shooting pains in the head/ear are often due to disorders involving the nerves. This is caused neuralgia.